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Scala 3 — Book

Toplevel Definitions

Language

In Scala 3, all kinds of definitions can be written at the “top level” of your source code files. For instance, you can create a file named MyCoolApp.scala and put these contents into it:

import scala.collection.mutable.ArrayBuffer

enum Topping:
  case Cheese, Pepperoni, Mushrooms

import Topping.*
class Pizza:
  val toppings = ArrayBuffer[Topping]()

val p = Pizza()

extension (s: String)
  def capitalizeAllWords = s.split(" ").map(_.capitalize).mkString(" ")

val hwUpper = "hello, world".capitalizeAllWords

type Money = BigDecimal

// more definitions here as desired ...

@main def myApp =
  p.toppings += Cheese
  println("show me the code".capitalizeAllWords)

As shown, there’s no need to put those definitions inside a package, class, or other construct.

Replaces package objects

If you’re familiar with Scala 2, this approach replaces package objects. But while being much easier to use, they work similarly: When you place a definition in a package named foo, you can then access that definition under all other packages under foo, such as within the foo.bar package in this example:

package foo {
  def double(i: Int) = i * 2
}

package foo {
  package bar {
    @main def fooBarMain =
      println(s"${double(1)}")   // this works
  }
}

Curly braces are used in this example to put an emphasis on the package nesting.

The benefit of this approach is that you can place definitions under a package named com.acme.myapp, and then those definitions can be referenced within com.acme.myapp.model, com.acme.myapp.controller, etc.

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