Work in Progress

Scala 3 has not been released, yet. We are still in the process of writing the documentation for Scala 3. You can help us to improve the documentation.

Are you searching for the Scala 2 documentation?

Scala 3 — Book

Pure Functions


Another feature that Scala offers to help you write functional code is the ability to write pure functions. A pure function can be defined like this:

  • A function f is pure if, given the same input x, it always returns the same output f(x)
  • The function’s output depends only on its input variables and its internal algorithm
  • It doesn’t modify its input parameters
  • It doesn’t mutate any hidden state
  • It doesn’t have any “back doors”: It doesn’t read data from the outside world (including the console, web services, databases, files, etc.), or write data to the outside world

As a result of this definition, any time you call a pure function with the same input value(s), you’ll always get the same result. For example, you can call a double function an infinite number of times with the input value 2, and you’ll always get the result 4.

Examples of pure functions

Given that definition, as you can imagine, methods like these in the scala.math._ package are pure functions:

  • abs
  • ceil
  • max

These String methods are also pure functions:

  • isEmpty
  • length
  • substring

Most methods on the Scala collections classes also work as pure functions, including drop, filter, map, and many more.

In Scala, functions and methods are almost completely interchangeable, so even though we use the common industry term “pure function,” this term can be used to describe both functions and methods. If you’re interested in how methods can be used like functions, see the Eta Expansion discussion.

Examples of impure functions

Conversely, the following functions are impure because they violate the definition.

The foreach method on collections classes is impure because it’s only used for its side effects, such as printing to STDOUT.

A great hint that foreach is impure is that it’s method signature declares that it returns the type Unit. Because it doesn’t return anything, logically the only reason you ever call it is to achieve some side effect. Similarly, any method that returns Unit is going to be an impure function.

Date and time related methods like getDayOfWeek, getHour, and getMinute are all impure because their output depends on something other than their input parameters. Their results rely on some form of hidden I/O; hidden inputs, in these examples.

Additionally, methods that interact with the console, files, databases, web services, sensors, etc., are all impure.

In general, impure functions do one or more of these things:

  • Read hidden inputs, i.e., they access variables and data not explicitly passed into the function as input parameters
  • Write hidden outputs
  • Mutate the parameters they’re given, or mutate hidden variables, such as fields in their containing class
  • Perform some sort of I/O with the outside world

But impure functions are needed …

Of course an application isn’t very useful if it can’t read or write to the outside world, so people make this recommendation:

Write the core of your application using pure functions, and then write an impure “wrapper” around that core to interact with the outside world. As someone once said, this is like putting a layer of impure icing on top of a pure cake.

It’s important to note that there are ways to make impure interactions with the outside world feel more pure. For instance, you’ll hear about using an IO Monad to deal with input and output. These topics are beyond the scope of this document, so to keep things simple it can help to think that FP applications have a core of pure functions that are wrapped with other functions to interact with the outside world.

Writing pure functions

Note: In this section the common industry term “pure function” is often used to refer to Scala methods.

To write pure functions in Scala, just write them using Scala’s method syntax (though you can also use Scala’s function syntax, as well). For instance, here’s a pure function that doubles the input value it’s given:

def double(i: Int): Int = i * 2

If you’re comfortable with recursion, here’s a pure function that calculates the sum of a list of integers:

def sum(xs: List[Int]): Int = xs match
  case Nil => 0
  case head :: tail => head + sum(tail)

If you understand that code, you’ll see that it meets the pure function definition.

Key points

The first key point of this section is the definition of a pure function:

A pure function is a function that depends only on its declared inputs and its internal algorithm to produce its output. It does not read any other values from “the outside world”—the world outside of the function’s scope—and it doesn’t modify any values in the outside world.

A second key point is that every real-world application interacts with the outside world. Therefore, a simplified way to think about functional programs is that they consist of a core of pure functions that are wrapped with other functions that interact with the outside world.

Contributors to this page: