Extension methods allow one to add methods to a type after the type is defined. Example:

```
case class Circle(x: Double, y: Double, radius: Double)
extension (c: Circle)
def circumference: Double = c.radius * math.Pi * 2
```

Like regular methods, extension methods can be invoked with infix `.`

:

```
val circle = Circle(0, 0, 1)
circle.circumference
```

### Translation of Extension Methods

An extension method translates to a specially labelled method that takes the leading parameter section as its first argument list. The label, expressed
as `<extension>`

here, is compiler-internal. So, the definition of `circumference`

above translates to the following method, and can also be invoked as such:

```
<extension> def circumference(c: Circle): Double = c.radius * math.Pi * 2
assert(circle.circumference == circumference(circle))
```

### Operators

The extension method syntax can also be used to define operators. Examples:

```
extension (x: String)
def < (y: String): Boolean = ...
extension (x: Elem)
def +: (xs: Seq[Elem]): Seq[Elem] = ...
extension (x: Number)
infix def min (y: Number): Number = ...
"ab" < "c"
1 +: List(2, 3)
x min 3
```

The three definitions above translate to

```
<extension> def < (x: String)(y: String): Boolean = ...
<extension> def +: (xs: Seq[Elem])(x: Elem): Seq[Elem] = ...
<extension> infix def min(x: Number)(y: Number): Number = ...
```

Note the swap of the two parameters `x`

and `xs`

when translating
the right-associative operator `+:`

to an extension method. This is analogous
to the implementation of right binding operators as normal methods. The Scala
compiler preprocesses an infix operation `x +: xs`

to `xs.+:(x)`

, so the extension
method ends up being applied to the sequence as first argument (in other words, the
two swaps cancel each other out). See here for details.

### Generic Extensions

It is also possible to extend generic types by adding type parameters to an extension. For instance:

```
extension [T](xs: List[T])
def second = xs.tail.head
extension [T: Numeric](x: T)
def + (y: T): T = summon[Numeric[T]].plus(x, y)
```

Type parameters on extensions can also be combined with type parameters on the methods themselves:

```
extension [T](xs: List[T])
def sumBy[U: Numeric](f: T => U): U = ...
```

Type arguments matching method type parameters are passed as usual:

```
List("a", "bb", "ccc").sumBy[Int](_.length)
```

By contrast, type arguments matching type parameters following `extension`

can be passed
only if the method is referenced as a non-extension method:

```
sumBy[String](List("a", "bb", "ccc"))(_.length)
```

Or, when passing both type arguments:

```
sumBy[String](List("a", "bb", "ccc"))[Int](_.length)
```

Extensions can also take using clauses. For instance, the `+`

extension above could equivalently be written with a using clause:

```
extension [T](x: T)(using n: Numeric[T])
def + (y: T): T = n.plus(x, y)
```

### Collective Extensions

Sometimes, one wants to define several extension methods that share the same left-hand parameter type. In this case one can “pull out” the common parameters into a single extension and enclose all methods in braces or an indented region. Example:

```
extension (ss: Seq[String])
def longestStrings: Seq[String] =
val maxLength = ss.map(_.length).max
ss.filter(_.length == maxLength)
def longestString: String = longestStrings.head
```

The same can be written with braces as follows (note that indented regions can still be used inside braces):

```
extension (ss: Seq[String]) {
def longestStrings: Seq[String] = {
val maxLength = ss.map(_.length).max
ss.filter(_.length == maxLength)
}
def longestString: String = longestStrings.head
}
```

Note the right-hand side of `longestString`

: it calls `longestStrings`

directly, implicitly
assuming the common extended value `ss`

as receiver.

Collective extensions like these are a shorthand for individual extensions where each method is defined separately. For instance, the first extension above expands to:

```
extension (ss: Seq[String])
def longestStrings: Seq[String] =
val maxLength = ss.map(_.length).max
ss.filter(_.length == maxLength)
extension (ss: Seq[String])
def longestString: String = ss.longestStrings.head
```

Collective extensions also can take type parameters and have using clauses. Example:

```
extension [T](xs: List[T])(using Ordering[T])
def smallest(n: Int): List[T] = xs.sorted.take(n)
def smallestIndices(n: Int): List[Int] =
val limit = smallest(n).max
xs.zipWithIndex.collect { case (x, i) if x <= limit => i }
```

### Translation of Calls to Extension Methods

To convert a reference to an extension method, the compiler has to know about the extension
method. We say in this case that the extension method is *applicable* at the point of reference.
There are four possible ways for an extension method to be applicable:

- The extension method is visible under a simple name, by being defined or inherited or imported in a scope enclosing the reference.
- The extension method is a member of some given instance that is visible at the point of the reference.
- The reference is of the form
`r.m`

and the extension method is defined in the implicit scope of the type of`r`

. - The reference is of the form
`r.m`

and the extension method is defined in some given instance in the implicit scope of the type of`r`

.

Here is an example for the first rule:

```
trait IntOps:
extension (i: Int) def isZero: Boolean = i == 0
extension (i: Int) def safeMod(x: Int): Option[Int] =
// extension method defined in same scope IntOps
if x.isZero then None
else Some(i % x)
object IntOpsEx extends IntOps:
extension (i: Int) def safeDiv(x: Int): Option[Int] =
// extension method brought into scope via inheritance from IntOps
if x.isZero then None
else Some(i / x)
trait SafeDiv:
import IntOpsEx.* // brings safeDiv and safeMod into scope
extension (i: Int) def divide(d: Int): Option[(Int, Int)] =
// extension methods imported and thus in scope
(i.safeDiv(d), i.safeMod(d)) match
case (Some(d), Some(r)) => Some((d, r))
case _ => None
```

By the second rule, an extension method can be made available by defining a given instance containing it, like this:

```
given ops1: IntOps() // brings safeMod into scope
1.safeMod(2)
```

By the third and fourth rule, an extension method is available if it is in the implicit scope of the receiver type or in a given instance in that scope. Example:

```
class List[T]:
...
object List:
...
extension [T](xs: List[List[T]])
def flatten: List[T] = xs.foldLeft(List.empty[T])(_ ++ _)
given [T: Ordering]: Ordering[List[T]] with
extension (xs: List[T])
def < (ys: List[T]): Boolean = ...
end List
// extension method available since it is in the implicit scope
// of List[List[Int]]
List(List(1, 2), List(3, 4)).flatten
// extension method available since it is in the given Ordering[List[T]],
// which is itself in the implicit scope of List[Int]
List(1, 2) < List(3)
```

The precise rules for resolving a selection to an extension method are as follows.

Assume a selection `e.m[Ts]`

where `m`

is not a member of `e`

, where the type arguments `[Ts]`

are optional, and where `T`

is the expected type.
The following two rewritings are tried in order:

- The selection is rewritten to
`m[Ts](e)`

. -
If the first rewriting does not typecheck with expected type

`T`

, and there is an extension method`m`

in some eligible object`o`

, the selection is rewritten to`o.m[Ts](e)`

. An object`o`

is*eligible*if`o`

forms part of the implicit scope of`T`

, or`o`

is a given instance that is visible at the point of the application, or`o`

is a given instance in the implicit scope of`T`

.

This second rewriting is attempted at the time where the compiler also tries an implicit conversion from

`T`

to a type containing`m`

. If there is more than one way of rewriting, an ambiguity error results.

An extension method can also be referenced using a simple identifier without a preceding expression. If an identifier `g`

appears in the body of an extension method `f`

and refers to an extension method `g`

that is defined in the same collective extension

```
extension (x: T)
def f ... = ... g ...
def g ...
```

the identifier is rewritten to `x.g`

. This is also the case if `f`

and `g`

are the same method. Example:

```
extension (s: String)
def position(ch: Char, n: Int): Int =
if n < s.length && s(n) != ch then position(ch, n + 1)
else n
```

The recursive call `position(ch, n + 1)`

expands to `s.position(ch, n + 1)`

in this case. The whole extension method rewrites to

```
def position(s: String)(ch: Char, n: Int): Int =
if n < s.length && s(n) != ch then position(s)(ch, n + 1)
else n
```

### Syntax

Here are the syntax changes for extension methods and collective extensions relative to the current syntax.

```
BlockStat ::= ... | Extension
TemplateStat ::= ... | Extension
TopStat ::= ... | Extension
Extension ::= ‘extension’ [DefTypeParamClause] ‘(’ DefParam ‘)’
{UsingParamClause} ExtMethods
ExtMethods ::= ExtMethod | [nl] <<< ExtMethod {semi ExtMethod} >>>
ExtMethod ::= {Annotation [nl]} {Modifier} ‘def’ DefDef
```

In the above the notation `<<< ts >>>`

in the production rule `ExtMethods`

is defined as follows :

```
<<< ts >>> ::= ‘{’ ts ‘}’ | indent ts outdent
```

`extension`

is a soft keyword. It is recognized as a keyword only if it appears
at the start of a statement and is followed by `[`

or `(`

. In all other cases
it is treated as an identifier.