collections

You have syntax `List(1, 2, 3)`

to create a list of three integers and `Map('A' -> 1, 'C' -> 2)`

to create a map with two bindings. This is actually a universal feature of Scala collections. You can take any collection name and follow it by a list of elements in parentheses. The result will be a new collection with the given elements. Here are some more examples:

```
Traversable() // An empty traversable object
List() // The empty list
List(1.0, 2.0) // A list with elements 1.0, 2.0
Vector(1.0, 2.0) // A vector with elements 1.0, 2.0
Iterator(1, 2, 3) // An iterator returning three integers.
Set(dog, cat, bird) // A set of three animals
HashSet(dog, cat, bird) // A hash set of the same animals
Map('a' -> 7, 'b' -> 0) // A map from characters to integers
```

“Under the covers” each of the above lines is a call to the `apply`

method of some object. For instance, the third line above expands to

```
List.apply(1.0, 2.0)
```

So this is a call to the `apply`

method of the companion object of the `List`

class. That method takes an arbitrary number of arguments and constructs a list from them. Every collection class in the Scala library has a companion object with such an `apply`

method. It does not matter whether the collection class represents a concrete implementation, like `List`

, or `Stream`

or `Vector`

, do, or whether it is an abstract base class such as `Seq`

, `Set`

or `Traversable`

. In the latter case, calling apply will produce some default implementation of the abstract base class. Examples:

```
scala> List(1, 2, 3)
res17: List[Int] = List(1, 2, 3)
scala> Traversable(1, 2, 3)
res18: Traversable[Int] = List(1, 2, 3)
scala> mutable.Traversable(1, 2, 3)
res19: scala.collection.mutable.Traversable[Int] = ArrayBuffer(1, 2, 3)
```

Besides `apply`

, every collection companion object also defines a member `empty`

, which returns an empty collection. So instead of `List()`

you could write `List.empty`

, instead of `Map()`

, `Map.empty`

, and so on.

Descendants of `Seq`

classes provide also other factory operations in their companion objects. These are summarized in the following table. In short, there’s

`concat`

, which concatenates an arbitrary number of traversables together,`fill`

and`tabulate`

, which generate single or multi-dimensional sequences of given dimensions initialized by some expression or tabulating function,`range`

, which generates integer sequences with some constant step length, and`iterate`

, which generates the sequence resulting from repeated application of a function to a start element.

WHAT IT IS | WHAT IT DOES |
---|---|

`S.empty` |
The empty sequence. |

`S(x, y, z)` |
A sequence consisting of elements `x, y, z` . |

`S.concat(xs, ys, zs)` |
The sequence obtained by concatenating the elements of `xs, ys, zs` . |

`S.fill(n){e}` |
A sequence of length `n` where each element is computed by expression `e` . |

`S.fill(m, n){e}` |
A sequence of sequences of dimension `m×n` where each element is computed by expression `e` . (exists also in higher dimensions). |

`S.tabulate(n){f}` |
A sequence of length `n` where the element at each index i is computed by `f(i)` . |

`S.tabulate(m, n){f}` |
A sequence of sequences of dimension `m×n` where the element at each index `(i, j)` is computed by `f(i, j)` . (exists also in higher dimensions). |

`S.range(start, end)` |
The sequence of integers `start` … `end-1` . |

`S.range(start, end, step)` |
The sequence of integers starting with `start` and progressing by `step` increments up to, and excluding, the `end` value. |

`S.iterate(x, n)(f)` |
The sequence of length `n` with elements `x` , `f(x)` , `f(f(x))` , … |

Contents

- Introduction
- Mutable and Immutable Collections
- Trait Traversable
- Trait Iterable
- The sequence traits Seq, IndexedSeq, and LinearSeq
- Sets
- Maps
- Concrete Immutable Collection Classes
- Concrete Mutable Collection Classes
- Arrays
- Strings
- Performance Characteristics
- Equality
- Views
- Iterators
- Creating Collections From Scratch
- Conversions Between Java and Scala Collections
- Migrating from Scala 2.7