FAQ

What are Scala context bounds?

What is a Context Bound?

Context bounds were introduced in Scala 2.8.0, and are typically used with the so-called type class pattern, a pattern of code that emulates the functionality provided by Haskell type classes, though in a more verbose manner.

A context bound requires a parameterized type, such as Ordered[A], but unlike String.

A context bound describes an implicit value. It is used to declare that for some type A, there is an implicit value of type B[A] available. The syntax goes like this:

def f[A : B](a: A) = g(a) // where g requires an implicit value of type B[A]

The common example of usage in Scala is this:

def f[A : ClassTag](n: Int) = new Array[A](n)

An Array initialization on a parameterized type requires a ClassTag to be available, for arcane reasons related to type erasure and the non-erasure nature of arrays.

Another very common example in the library is a bit more complex:

def f[A : Ordering](a: A, b: A) = implicitly[Ordering[A]].compare(a, b)

Here, implicitly is used to retrive the implicit value we want, one of type Ordering[A], which class defines the method compare(a: A, b: A): Int.

We’ll see another way of doing this below.

How are Context Bounds implemented?

It shouldn’t be surprising that context bounds are implemented with implicit parameters, given their definition. Actually, the syntax I showed are syntactic sugars for what really happens. See below how they de-sugar:

def g[A : B](a: A) = h(a)
def g[A](a: A)(implicit ev: B[A]) = h(a)

So, naturally, one can write them in their full syntax, which is specially useful for context bounds:

def f[A](a: A, b: A)(implicit ord: Ordering[A]) = ord.compare(a, b)

What are Context Bounds used for?

Context bounds are mainly used in what has become known as typeclass pattern, as a reference to Haskell’s type classes. Basically, this pattern implements an alternative to inheritance by making functionality available through a sort of implicit adapter pattern.

The classic example is Scala 2.8’s Ordering. The usage is:

def f[A : Ordering](a: A, b: A) = if (implicitly[Ordering[A]].lt(a, b)) a else b

Though you’ll usually see that written like this:

def f[A](a: A, b: A)(implicit ord: Ordering[A]) = {
    import ord._
    if (a < b) a else b
}

Which take advantage of some implicit conversions inside Ordering that enable the traditional operator style. Another example in Scala 2.8 is the Numeric:

def f[A : Numeric](a: A, b: A) = implicitly[Numeric[A]].plus(a, b)

A more complex example is the new collection usage of CanBuildFrom, but there’s already a very long answer about that, so I’ll avoid it here. And, as mentioned before, there’s the ClassTag usage, which is required to initialize new arrays without concrete types.

Though it has been possible for a long time, the use of context bounds has really taken off in 2010, and is now found to some degree in most of Scala’s most important libraries and frameworks. The most extreme example of its usage, though, is the Scalaz library, which brings a lot of the power of Haskell to Scala. I recommend reading up on typeclass patterns to get more acquainted it all the ways in which it can be used.

Related questions of interest:

This answer was originally submitted in response to this question on Stack Overflow.

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