Scala supports variance annotations of type parameters of generic classes. In contrast to Java 5 (aka. JDK 1.5), variance annotations may be added when a class abstraction is defined, whereas in Java 5, variance annotations are given by clients when a class abstraction is used.

In the page about generic classes an example for a mutable stack was given. We explained that the type defined by the class Stack[T] is subject to invariant subtyping regarding the type parameter. This can restrict the reuse of the class abstraction. We now derive a functional (i.e. immutable) implementation for stacks which does not have this restriction. Please note that this is an advanced example which combines the use of polymorphic methods, lower type bounds, and covariant type parameter annotations in a non-trivial fashion. Furthermore we make use of inner classes to chain the stack elements without explicit links.

class Stack[+A] {
  def push[B >: A](elem: B): Stack[B] = new Stack[B] {
    override def top: B = elem
    override def pop: Stack[B] = Stack.this
    override def toString() = elem.toString() + " " +
  def top: A = sys.error("no element on stack")
  def pop: Stack[A] = sys.error("no element on stack")
  override def toString() = ""

object VariancesTest extends App {
  var s: Stack[Any] = new Stack().push("hello");
  s = s.push(new Object())
  s = s.push(7)

The annotation +T declares type T to be used only in covariant positions. Similarly, -T would declare T to be used only in contravariant positions. For covariant type parameters we get a covariant subtype relationship regarding this type parameter. For our example this means Stack[T] is a subtype of Stack[S] if T is a subtype of S. The opposite holds for type parameters that are tagged with a -.

For the stack example we would have to use the covariant type parameter T in a contravariant position for being able to define method push. Since we want covariant subtyping for stacks, we use a trick and abstract over the parameter type of method push. We get a polymorphic method in which we use the element type T as a lower bound of push’s type variable. This has the effect of bringing the variance of T in sync with its declaration as a covariant type parameter. Now stacks are covariant, but our solution allows that e.g. it’s possible to push a string on an integer stack. The result will be a stack of type Stack[Any]; so only if the result is used in a context where we expect an integer stack, we actually detect the error. Otherwise we just get a stack with a more general element type.

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