String Interpolation

Josh Suereth


Starting in Scala 2.10.0, Scala offers a new mechanism to create strings from your data: String Interpolation. String Interpolation allows users to embed variable references directly in processed string literals. Here’s an example:

val name = "James"
println(s"Hello, $name")  // Hello, James

In the above, the literal s"Hello, $name" is a processed string literal. This means that the compiler does some additional work to this literal. A processed string literal is denoted by a set of characters preceding the ". String interpolation was introduced by SIP-11, which contains all details of the implementation.


Scala provides three string interpolation methods out of the box: s, f and raw.

The s String Interpolator

Prepending s to any string literal allows the usage of variables directly in the string. You’ve already seen an example here:

val name = "James"
println(s"Hello, $name")  // Hello, James

Here $name is nested inside an s processed string. The s interpolator knows to insert the value of the name variable at this location in the string, resulting in the string Hello, James. With the s interpolator, any name that is in scope can be used within a string.

String interpolators can also take arbitrary expressions. For example:

println(s"1 + 1 = ${1 + 1}")

will print the string 1 + 1 = 2. Any arbitrary expression can be embedded in ${}.

The f Interpolator

Prepending f to any string literal allows the creation of simple formatted strings, similar to printf in other languages. When using the f interpolator, all variable references should be followed by a printf-style format string, like %d. Let’s look at an example:

val height = 1.9d
val name = "James"
println(f"$name%s is $height%2.2f meters tall")  // James is 1.90 meters tall

The f interpolator is typesafe. If you try to pass a format string that only works for integers but pass a double, the compiler will issue an error. For example:

val height: Double = 1.9d

scala> f"$height%4d"
<console>:9: error: type mismatch;
 found   : Double
 required: Int

The f interpolator makes use of the string format utilities available from Java. The formats allowed after the % character are outlined in the Formatter javadoc. If there is no % character after a variable definition a formatter of %s (String) is assumed.

The raw Interpolator

The raw interpolator is similar to the s interpolator except that it performs no escaping of literals within the string. Here’s an example processed string:

scala> s"a\nb"
res0: String =

Here the s string interpolator replaced the characters \n with a return character. The raw interpolator will not do that.

scala> raw"a\nb"
res1: String = a\nb

The raw interpolator is useful when you want to avoid having expressions like \n turn into a return character.

In addition to the three default string interpolators, users can define their own.

Advanced Usage

In Scala, all processed string literals are simple code transformations. Anytime the compiler encounters a string literal of the form:

id"string content"

it transforms it into a method call (id) on an instance of StringContext. This method can also be available on implicit scope. To define our own string interpolation, we simply need to create an implicit class that adds a new method to StringContext. Here’s an example:

// Note: We extends AnyVal to prevent runtime instantiation.  See
// value class guide for more info.
implicit class JsonHelper(val sc: StringContext) extends AnyVal {
  def json(args: Any*): JSONObject = sys.error("TODO - IMPLEMENT")

def giveMeSomeJson(x: JSONObject): Unit = ...

giveMeSomeJson(json"{ name: $name, id: $id }")

In this example, we’re attempting to create a JSON literal syntax using string interpolation. The JsonHelper implicit class must be in scope to use this syntax, and the json method would need a complete implementation. However, the result of such a formatted string literal would not be a string, but a JSONObject.

When the compiler encounters the literal json"{ name: $name, id: $id }" it rewrites it to the following expression:

new StringContext("{ name:", ",id: ", "}").json(name, id)

The implicit class is then used to rewrite it to the following:

new JsonHelper(new StringContext("{ name:", ",id: ", "}")).json(name, id)

So, the json method has access to the raw pieces of strings and each expression as a value. A simple (buggy) implementation of this method could be:

implicit class JsonHelper(val sc: StringContext) extends AnyVal {
  def json(args: Any*): JSONObject = {
    val strings =
    val expressions = args.iterator
    var buf = new StringBuffer(
    while(strings.hasNext) {
      buf append
      buf append

Each of the string portions of the processed string are exposed in the StringContext’s parts member. Each of the expression values is passed into the json method’s args parameter. The json method takes this and generates a big string which it then parses into JSON. A more sophisticated implementation could avoid having to generate this string and simply construct the JSON directly from the raw strings and expression values.

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